Hemp seeds

Hemp, a variety of the cannabis plant, is a widely cultivated herb grown for its edible seeds, oil, and strong woody fiber used in cordage and fabrics. Unlike marijuana, modern-day hemp contains very small concentrations of the psychoactive substance delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), less than 0.3%. Marijuana, on the other hand, typically contains between 5% and 20%, with some types containing up to 35%. Hemp contains higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), however, than marijuana. CBD is the ingredient in cannabis thought to have medicinal properties. The Federal Drug Administration in the United States recently approved the CBD-derived epilepsy drug Epidiolex. Of all the products made from hemp sold in the U.S. in 2017, consumers spent the most on hemp-derived CBD, $190 million. One of the top food trends in 2019 is expected to be CBD-infused food and drinks, increasing demand. Spending on hemp-based industrial products totaled $144 million in 2017, much of which was spent by the automotive industry.

Hemp has been cultivated for thousands of years. Its fibers were found in pottery dating back more than 5,000 years in what is modern-day Taiwan. Textiles made of hemp were used in China as far back as 4000 BC and hemp paper was first used in 100 BC. The first recorded use of cannabis as medicine was in 2737 BC. In the 1500s, hemp was used for sailcloth for the English Navy. Because of this, English farmers and later farmers in the North American colonies were required to devote some acreage to hemp cultivation. The variety of cannabis that was grown in the American colonies was Cannabis sativa, an imported variety, not the indigenous hemp known to Native Americans. The plants were grown in tight clusters, thereby creating a taller plant with fewer branches and fewer female flowers. It’s the female flowers that contain high concentrations of THC. In the 18th-century, hemp was made into clothes, rope, bed ticking and sacks. During the American Revolution, it was in high demand for ropes and sails for the Continental Navy as well as for the state-sponsored fleets. Demand for it waned after the war but remained a flourishing domestic cash crop in the United States. After the Marihuana Tax Act of 19371 was implemented, which also taxed and regulated hemp, the popularity of hemp declined and many businesses shuttered. In the middle of the 20th century, calls for the prohibition of marijuana due to its intoxicating effects led to cannabis being banned in the Federal Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 signed by Richard Nixon. No provision was made to exempt industrialized hemp grown for utilitarian purposes.

As the tide of public opinion toward cannabis turned and more and more states started to legalize medical marijuana, hemp was again looked at as a viable domestic crop. The Agricultural Act of 2014, signed by President Obama, defined industrialized hemp as separate from marijuana and authorized research and pilot programs for the production of hemp in conjunction with universities and state departments of agriculture. In 2015, seven states planted research crops. Twenty-seven states removed barriers to hemp production and Colorado, Oregon, and Vermont licensed farmers to grow hemp under state law. Unfortunately, Federal law still classified hemp as a Schedule I substance so farmers could still go to jail and have their property taken away for growing hemp. This changed with the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, also known as the 2018 Farm Bill, that President Trump signed into law in December 2018. This law amended the Controlled Substances Act to exempt the THC in hemp from being classified as a Schedule I drug, opening up opportunities for farmers to grow and sell industrialized hemp in the United States without the worry of losing their property or going to prison due to Federal drug policy.

Today’s market size shows the total sales of hemp products in the United States in 2017 and 2022 according to Hemp Business Journal estimates. *Future estimates vary widely among different groups when it comes to the largest sales category in the hemp industry, CBD-based products. Marijuana research firm Greenwave Advisors predicts that CBD product sales alone will reach $3 billion by 2021. Cannabis industry analysts at the Brightfield Group predict that sales will reach $22 billion by 2022. These higher estimates are bolstered by many factors, not the least of which is the signing of the 2018 Farm Bill into law. Also, products containing CBD are now more widely available, being sold at health food stores and in beauty aisles of mainstream retailers. More doctors are prescribing CBD products for conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. The Federal Drug Administration’s approval of Epidiolex will also fuel demand. An estimated $591 million was spent on hemp-based CBD products in 2018. Demand is expected to grow as consumers continue to seek natural remedies for ailments.

1 “Under pertinent provisions of the Marihuana Tax Act, 26 U.S.C.S. §§ 4751-4753, every person who sells, deals in, dispenses, or gives away marihuana must register with the Internal Revenue Service and pay a special occupational tax.” Also, a transfer tax was required to be paid and a form was to be filled out with the name and address of the buyer and seller and the amount of marihuana to be purchased. The form was to be filled out in triplicate, one copy going to the Internal Revenue Service, one copy to be kept by the buyer and the original to be kept by the seller. All copies and originals were subject to inspection by federal and state law enforcement. Source: “Marijuana Tax Act Law and Legal Definition,” USLegal available online here.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2017 and 2022
Market size: $820 million and $1.9 billion*, respectively
Sources: “The U.S. Hemp Industry Grows to $820mm in Sales in 2017,” Hemp Business Journal, May 20, 2018 available online here; “Hemp,” Merriam-Webster available online here; “The Truth Behind Hemp in the United States,” Ministry of Hemp available online here; Ben Swensen, “Hemp & Flax in Colonial America,” Colonial Williamsburg Journal, Winter 2015 available online here; “10,000- year History of Marijuana Use in the World,” Advanced Holistic Health available online here; Elisabeth Garber-Paul, “Exclusive: New Report Predicts CBD Market Will Hit $22 Billion by 2022,” Rolling Stone, September 11, 2018 available online here; Public Law No: 115-334. Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 available online here; Daniele Piomelli and Ethan B. Russo, “The Cannabis sativa Versus Cannabis indica Debate: An Interview with Ethan Russo, MD,” Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, January 1, 2016 available online here; Brian S. Julin, “Welcome to Frequently Asked Questions About Cannabis Hemp,” 1994 available online here; “Titles II and III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-513)” available online here; “Hemp vs Marijuana,” Ministry of Hemp available online here; “Marijuana Tax Act Law and Legal Definition,” USLegal available online here; Trevor Hughes, “It Won’t Get You High, But It Can Make You Full,” USA Today for the Lansing State Journal, January 14, 2019, page 1B.
Image source: ulleo, “hemp-cannabis-seeds-grains-healthy-2258608,” Pixabay, April 28, 2017 available online here.

Meat Substitutes

Meat substitutes soy medallions cauliflower potatoesIn the 2000s, documentaries attempted to expose the animal welfare, environmental, and economic impacts related to large-scale industrial farming. More recently, studies have been published linking the decreased consumption of meat and the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to lower death rates, reduced production of greenhouse gases, and healthcare-related savings. According to a study published in PNAS, adopting global dietary guidelines such as these could reduce deaths by 5.1 million by 2050, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by nearly one-third, and save $700-1,000 billion per year in healthcare costs. The Global Burden Disease study, led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, found that six of the top 10 risk factors for early death worldwide were linked to a poor diet. Researchers concluded that a diet high in red meat and sugary drinks and low in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains contributed to 30.8 million deaths, or 21% of the global population in 2013, up from 25.1 million in 1990.

According to GlobalData, 70% of the world’s population is either reducing their consumption of meat or eschewing meat altogether. In the United States alone, the percentage of people who describe themselves as vegan jumped six-fold from 2014 to 2017. In Great Britain, the number of people identifying as vegan jumped 350% over the past decade. In Portugal, the number of vegetarians increased 400% over the same time period. Faced with increased obesity, Type-2 diabetes, and heart disease in their populations, countries such as Canada and China have proposed or implemented new nutrition guidelines calling for their citizens to eat a plant-rich diet. In the past 30 years, China’s meat consumption has quadrupled; however, China’s new food guidelines encourage its population to halve their meat consumption by 2030.

In 2017, 26% of consumers in the United States reported reducing their meat consumption in the past 12 months and 36% reported buying plant-based meat substitutes. According to a California Walnut Board study, 83% of Americans would be interested in making meatless recipes if the taste and texture would be similar to meat-centric dishes. According to Chuck Jolley, president of the Meat Industry Hall of Fame, the popularity of plant-based meat substitutes is one of the six biggest challenges for animal agriculture in 2018 as more of these products are sold in mainstream grocery stores and restaurants. Whether people are concerned about animal welfare, environmental issues or their health, the percentage of people giving up meat completely is quite small. Of the countries mentioned above, in the United States, 6% of the population identifies as vegan; in Great Britain, 3.25%;1 and in Portugal, 0.6%. Of course, not all consumers of meat substitutes are vegetarians or vegans. According to Beyond Meat’s executive chairman, Seth Goldman, 70% of consumers who purchase their Beyond Burger2 product are flexitarians, meat eaters who are reducing their meat consumption.

Today’s market size shows the global sales of meat substitutes in 2017 and projected for 2018, 2023 and 2025. Real meat will continue to have a place at the table in most households around the world. Global sales of meat substitutes were a small fraction of the $90 billion real meat market in 2017.

1 Figure is for 2016.
2 Mention of the company and its product does not constitute an endorsement.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2017, 2018, 2023 and 2025
Market size: $4.2 billion, $4.6 billion, $6.4 billion and $7.5 billion respectively
Sources: Zlati Meyer, “Missouri Is First State to Regulate the Word ‘Meat’,” USA Today for the Lansing State Journal, August 29, 2918, page 3B; “Plant-Based Diets Could Save Millions of Lives and Dramatically Cut Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” March 21, 2016 available online here; Madlen Davies, “Poor Diet Is the Biggest Cause of Early Death Across the World – With Red Meat and Sugary Drinks Responsible for One in Five Deaths,” Daily Mail, October 6, 2016 available online here; Becky Schilling, “The Future of Plant-Based Foods,” Supermarket News, September 21, 2017 available online here; Michael Pellman Rowland, “Millennials Are Driving The Worldwide Shift Away From Meat,” Forbes, March 23, 2018 available online here; “Why the Global Rise in Vegan and Plant-Based Eating Isn’t a Fad (600% Increase in U.S. Vegans + Other Astounding Stats),” Food Revolution Network, January 18, 2018 available online here; Chris Bennett, “Flesh and Blood: What’s the Future of Fake Meat?” Drovers, August 13, 2018 available online here; Elaine Watson, “An Estimated 70% of Beyond Burger Fans Are Meat Eaters, Not Vegans/Vegetarians, says Beyond Meat,” FoodNavigator-USA.com, January 12, 2018 available online here; Chuck Jolley, “Six Greatest Ag Challenges for 2018,” Feedstuffs, December 6, 2017 available online here; “Vegan Society Poll,” Ipsos MORI, May 16, 2016 available online here; “Number of Vegetarians in Portugal Rises by 400 Percent in 10 Years,” The Portugal News Online, December 10, 2017 available online here.
Original source: Figures for 2017 and 2025 are from Allied Market Research.
Image source: Kalhh, “cauliflower-potato-soy-medalions-943005,” Pixabay, September 17, 2015 available online here.

Fatty Amides

Plastic food packagingFatty amides, organic compounds derived from fatty acids, are used as slip agents and anti-blocking agents in polyolefin film processing. They’re added to the polymer from which the film is made. When the film is pressed, the fatty amides come to the surface and decrease the coefficient of friction between the film and the machine rollers to aid in the processing of the film. The fatty amides also prevent the layers from sticking together so that the rolls of film can be more easily unwound for further processing. Erucamide, oleamide, stearamide, and behenamide are the most commonly used fatty amides. Oleamide is widely used in food packaging and as a dispersing agent in printing inks and dyes. Erucamide had the largest share of the fatty amide market in 2016. It’s used as a slip agent, anti-fogging agent, and lubricant for polyolefin films used in food packing.

Today’s market size shows the total worldwide sales of fatty amides in 2017 and projected for 2022. The increasing demand for bio-based products, as opposed to petroleum-based products, is expected to fuel growth in this industry in the next 5 years. However, price volatility is expected to impede this growth during this time period. The market for fatty amides in the Asia-Pacific region is expected to grow the fastest due to the rising population and increased demand for packaged foods.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2017 and 2022 projected
Market size: $320.7 million and $391.5 million
Sources: “The Fatty Amides Market Size Will Grow From USD 320.7 Million in 2017 to USD 391.5 Million by 2022, at a CAGR of 4.07%,” CISION PR Newswire, March 8, 2018 available online here; “Fatty Amides Market,” Global Market Study on Fatty Amides: Increasing Demand from Film & Sheets Industry to Drive Growth of Market During the Forecast Period 2016 – 2022, Persistence Market Research Press Release, March 2016 available online here; Kenneth J. Longmoore and Edward K. Bullock, “Slip Agents and Polypropylene Films Prepared Therefrom,” United States Patent, No. US 6,497,965 B1, December 24, 2002 available online here.
Image source: ToddTrumble, “green-beans-plastic-bag-vegetable-1377124,” Pixabay, May 11, 2016 available online here.

Food Fortification Ingredients

Fortified foods, cereal and milkFortified foods, such as iodized salt and vitamin-D fortified milk, originally addressed nutrient deficiencies in the general public. Some countries currently mandate the addition of folic acid to enriched flour to reduce the risk of neural tube birth defects. Most food fortification is voluntary but regulated by government entities in countries where the food is sold along with the European Food Safety Authority and the World Health Organization. The United States, for example, does not allow the fortification of fresh produce, meat, poultry or fish products. European countries do not allow fortification of unprocessed foods. Fortification of snack foods is also discouraged.

Food fortification ingredients include vitamins, minerals, probiotics, prebiotics, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids. These added ingredients can be found in a wide variety of foods from juices, bread, and cereals to infant formula and pet food. Fortification indicates the addition of nutrients at levels higher than those naturally occurring in the food.

Today’s market size shows the value of food fortification ingredients in 2016 and 2025. The figure for 2025 is projected. The food fortification market is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 14.5% between 2017 and 2025 as consumers increasingly look for foods that provide additional health benefits beyond basic nutrition, such as omega-3 fortified foods for heart health and probiotics for digestive health.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2016 and 2025 projected
Market size: $30.50 billion and $100.84 billion respectively
Sources: “2017 Global Food Fortification Ingredients – Market Size, Market Share, Application Analysis, Growth Trends, Key Players and Competitive Strategies (2015-2025) – ResearchAndMarkets.com,” Business Wire press release, February 23, 2018 available online here; “Food Fortification in Today’s World,” International Food Information Council Foundation, June 20, 2014, last updated December 29, 2015 available online here; “Food Fortification Ingredients Market Report 2017-2027,” Visiongain, June 15, 2017 available online here.
Image source: skeeze, “cereal-spoonful-strawberry-spoon-556786,” Pixabay, December 9, 2014 available online here.

Coffee Cafes

Coffee cafeAccording to the National Coffee Association’s 2017 National Coffee Drinking Trends report, 62% of Americans drink coffee on a daily basis and 46% of coffee consumed is done so away from home. Although the recent popularity of coffee cafes may be traced back to the 1990s when Starbucks expanded across the country, TV show friends were seen hanging out at Central Perk coffeehouse, and laptops and wi-fi allowed workers to work from anywhere, coffee cafes are nothing new. The first public place to serve coffee dates back to 1475 in Constantinople, Turkey (now Istanbul).

Today’s market size shows the total sales of coffee cafe chains in the United States in 2016. The top three coffee cafe chains, in terms of sales, are Starbucks (estimated $14.7 billion, accounting for nearly 60% of the total sales at coffee cafe chains in the U.S.), Dunkin’ Donuts ($8.2 billion), and Tim Hortons (estimated $760 million).

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2016
Market size: $24.8 billion (a 9.7% increase from 2015)
Sources: “Coffee Cafe,” Restaurant Business, June 2017, page 55 available online here; Paajanen, Sean, “The Evolution of the Coffee House,” The Spruce, November 27, 2016 available online here; Mock, Brentin, “What Made Coffeehouse Culture Go Boom?” CityLab, January 23, 2017 available online here; Auffermann, Kyra, “From Brew Boomers to the Gourmet Generation: National Coffee Drinking Trends 2017,” The First Pull, National Coffee Association, March 28, 2017 available online here; DeRupo, Joe, “Daily Coffee Consumption Up Sharply,” National Coffee Association News Release, March 25, 2017 available online here.
Original source: Technomic’s Top 500 Chain Restaurant Report
Image source: Free-Photos, “coffee-shop-american-flag-america-1081713,” Pixabay, January 7, 2016 available online here.

Specialty Limited-Service Restaurants

Krispy Kreme restaurantA limited-service restaurant is one in which customers choose, order and pay for their food ahead of time. The food can be eaten in the restaurant, taken out, or delivered. Specialty limited-service restaurants specialize in one type of meal or menu item. Today’s market size shows the total sales at these types of restaurants. The top three specialty limited-service restaurants in terms of sales in 2016 were Krispy Kreme (estimated $758 million), Dickey’s Barbeque Pit (estimated $557.6 million), and Auntie Annie’s ($547.9 million).

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2016
Market size: $6.9 billion
Source: “Specialty LSR,” Restaurant Business, June 2017, page 52 available online here.
Original source: Technomic’s Top 500 Chain Restaurant Report
Image source: GoToVan, “Krispy Kreme in Delta (14865312212).jpg,” Wikimedia Commons, August 9, 2014, CC-BY-2.0 license available online here. Use of image does not constitute endorsement of brand.

Canadian Icewine Exports

Canadian icewineThe Canadian winemaking industry goes back more than 200 years to the early 1800s when Johann Schiller began growing hybridized grapes and making his own wine in Ontario’s Niagara region. The first commercial winery opened in 1866 on Pelee Island. In 1890 there were 41 commercial wineries in Canada, most in Ontario. By 2011 there were 476. Four years later that number grew to 604. Domestic sales of Canadian wines in 2015-2016 were C$2.1 billion. Exports were valued at nearly C$74 million in 2015.

Icewine, a dessert wine that is made exclusively from grapes that are naturally frozen on the vine, began to be produced commercially in Canada in 1978. In 1991 Inniskillin Winery’s 1989 Vidal Icewine won the Grand Prix d’Honneur at Bordeaux’s VinExpo, bringing international recognition to Canada’s icewine industry. Currently, Canada is the largest consistent producer of icewine in the world.

Today’s market size shows the value and volume of Canadian icewine exports in 2011 and 2015. More than a third of icewine exports went to China in 2015, followed by the United States (23.5%), South Korea (13.2%), the United Kingdom (6.5%), and Hong Kong (6.1%). In all in 2015 Canada exported icewine to 31 countries around the world. Although the value and volume of icewine exports have increased during the 2011 to 2015 time period, as a percentage of total wine exports, the value and volume have decreased. In 2011, icewine was 36.2% of total wine export value; in 2015, 25.1%. In 2011, icewine made up 0.84% of total wine exports by volume. In 2015, that dropped to 0.32%.

Geographic reference: Canada
Year: 2011 and 2015
Market size: C$13,354,174 and C$18,623,057 respectively
Market size: 181,093 liters and 234,604 liters respectively
Sources: “Canadian Icewine Exports 2011-2015,” Canadian Vintners Association, August 2016 available online here; “Canadian Icewine Exports – Top 10 Markets in 2015,” Canadian Vintners Association, August 2016 available online here; “Canadian Wine Exports 2011-2015,” Canadian Vintners Association, August 2016 available online here; Statistics Canada, “Table 183-0024 – Sales of Alcoholic Beverages of Liquor Authorities and Other Retail Outlets, by Value, Volume, and Beverage Type, Annual,” CANSIM, May 1, 2017 available online here; “Key Dates & Statistics,” Robert A Bell’s Wines of Canada available online here; “Canadian Icewine,” Canadian Vintners Association, 2016 availalble online here; “The Beginning of Wine Making in Canada,” Robert A Bell’s Wines of Canada, 2014 available online here; “History of Icewines,” Robert A Bell’s Wines of Canada, 2012 available online here; “Industry Statistics,” Canadian Vintners Association available online here; “Canadian Wine and Grape Industry Economic Impact 2015 Fact Sheet,” Canadian Vintners Association, March 2017 available online here.
Image source: Hatfield, Craig, “Icewine From The Niagara Region,” Wikimedia Commons, February 2, 2008 available online here. Use of image does not constitute endorsement of brand shown.

Craft Beer in Michigan

From 2012 to 2016, the number of craft breweries in the United States more than doubled from 2,420 to 5,234. In 2016, sales of craft beer made up 22%—$23.5 billion—of the overall beer market.

Today’s market size shows the number of craft breweries in Michigan and the number of gallons of beer they produced in 2016.

Geographic reference: Michigan
Year: 2016
Market size: 205 craft breweries produced 769,897 gallons of craft beer
Sources: Dillon Davis, “Standing Tall,” Lansing State Journal, April 23, 2017, page 3P; “Number of Breweries,” 2017 available online here.
Original source: Brewers Association
Image source: Tookapic, “Beer-glass-drink-beverage-alcohol-932320,” Pixabay, September 28, 2015 available online here.

Wineries in Michigan

Michigan ranks fifth in the United States in wine production. Most wine grapes are grown in Van Buren, Berrien, Leelanau, and Grand Traverse counties, all within 25 miles of the Lake Michigan coast. The top 3 wines produced are Riesling, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay. Because several other types of fruit are grown in the state, many wineries make wine from fruit other than grapes, such as with cherries or apples.

Geographic reference: Michigan
Year: 2017
Market size: 127 wineries producing 2.4 million gallons of wine annually
Source: Bob Gross, “Wine and Spirits Industries Booming,” Lansing State Journal, April 23, 2017, page 7P.
Original source: Michigan Grape and Wine Industry Council


Sake is an alcoholic beverage, made with rice, that originated in Japan. It is often referred to as rice wine but is actually closer to a beer than a wine based on the way that it is brewed. In the production of wine, the natural sugars in the fruits from which it is made are fermented. In making sake, the sugars that are fermented to produce the alcohol must first be converted from the starches in rice. It is a process very similar to the one used to brew beer.

Today’s market size is the value of Japanese sake exports to the world in 2002, 2012 and the industry’s declared goal for exports by 2020. In 2012, one-third of the sake exported from Japan was imported by the United States.

Geographic reference: Japan
Year: 2002, 2012, and a forecast for 2020
Market size: ¥7.5 billion, ¥8.9 billion and ¥60 billion respectively. In dollar terms, based on average exchange rates each year and using 2013’s exchange rate for the 2020 forecast, those values are $60 million, $112 million, and $616 million.
Source: Eric Peanner and Zhiyi Yang, “In Sake, Japan Sees A Potential Stimulus,” The New York Times, February 22, 2014, pages B1-B2. The average exchange rate data used to convert the Yen to Dollars was obtained at this OzForx Group Limited website.
Original source: National Tax Agency of Japan
Posted on March 11, 2014


The last decade has been one of unexpected growth for whiskey distillers in the United States and in particular for those producing bourbon. Bourbon is made in the United States only—in the same way that Scotch Whiskey must be made in Scotland—and is a type of whiskey made from a grain mash consisting of at least 51% corn mash. The distinctions that define types of whiskey are the primary grain used in the mash with which the whiskey is distilled, the length of time it is aged in a barrel, and the place in which it is made.

Bourbon whiskey was a very fashionable and popular drink in the United States after prohibition and through the 1950s. The drink went out of fashion in the 1960s and spent the next several decades in decline. But that has all changed since the turn of the century. Bourbon is once again a fashionable drink, demand for which is rising so quickly that distillers are having a hard time keeping pace. After all, a high-quality bourbon must spend years in a barrel to age making quick adjustments to inventory problematic.

Today’s market size is the value of bourbon exports from the United States in 2002 and 2013.

Geographic reference: U.S. exports
Year: 2002 and 2013
Market size: $376 million and $1 billion respectively
Source: Clay Risen, “The Billion-Dollar Bourbon Boom — How Did American Bourbon Get So Damn Hot?” Fortune, February 24, 2014, pages 56-65.
Original source: Distilled Spirits Council of the United States
Posted on March 4, 2014


Today’s market size is the total production of oranges worldwide in 2013, broken out into those harvested for consumption as fresh fruit and those harvested for processing. In the United States, production was down in 2013 due in part to Citrus Greening disease which has been killing trees in the nations largest orange producing state, Florida. Over the last six years, 2008–2013, U.S. orange production accounted for an average of 15% of world production. In 2013 that figure fell to 13%.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2013
Market size: 51.8 million metric tons, 59% harvested for fresh consumption and 41% for processing
Source: “Oranges, Fresh: Production, Supply and Distribution in Selected Countries,” Production, Supply and Distribution Online, December 24, 2013, USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, available online here. The USDA reports on the production and supply of many agricultural products through its Foreign Agricultural Service, the main web site for which is here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)
Posted on February 7, 2014

Craft Cider


Sales in the United States of hard cider tripled between 2007 and 2012. Hard cider is a fermented alcoholic beverage made with fruit juice, usually apple but some ciders are made with other fruit juices, primarily peach and pear. When the term cider is used alone, it may refer to hard cider or to a nonalcoholic apple cider.

Although the hard cider market is still a small fraction of the $10.2 billion craft beer market (2012) it is growing quickly. Cider sales in multi-outlets and convenience stores during the year ended March 24, 2013, totaled $122.5 million for the top 20 cider brands. That’s an increase of 97 percent compared to a year earlier. Capitalizing on the craft cider trend, small and large craft beer manufacturers are creating their own hard cider blends to entice drinkers with new taste offerings. To spark interest in the mainstream beer drinker MillerCoors offers several hybrid beers.

Today’s market size is total sales of hard cider in the United States in 2012.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $600 million
Source: Chris Furman, “Craft Cider Gaining Momentum,” Brewhound, June 3, 2013, available online here. The photo is from a web site offering images free of copyright, here.
Posted on January 24, 2014


Cranberries, a native fruit of North America, are consumed most frequently in the form of juice. However, during the celebration of Thanksgiving in the United States, cranberries in a more solid form have an important place on the menu. Wisconsin is the cranberry-producing center of the United States. It’s crop, in 2012, accounted for more than half of all fresh cranberries sold in the country.

Today’s market size in the estimated value of the 2012 cranberry harvest in the United States.

We wish you much to be thankful for on this day before Thanksgiving, 2013.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $386 million (slightly more than 8 million barrels of cranberries)
Source: Malinda Geisler and Diane Huntrods, “Cranberries Profile,” Agricultural Marketing Resource Center (AgMRC), Iowa State University, available online here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture
Posted on November 27, 2013

Orange Juice

Faced with a greater variety of beverage choices, including exotic juices and energy drinks, and higher prices for orange juice due to the spread of citrus greening disease, consumers are increasingly choosing those alternatives over the breakfast staple, orange juice. Total U.S. retail unit sales in the 2012-2013 season reached its lowest level since the 1998-1999 season.

Data show the total U.S. retail sales of orange juice by volume in the 2012-2013 season.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012-2013
Market size: 563.2 million gallons
Source: Alexandra Wexler, “The Slow Death of a Former Breakfast Table Star,” The Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2013, available online here.
Original source: Nielsen
Posted on October 29, 2013

Organic and Natural Juices

Just as more and more people are choosing to buy organic produce, so too are they looking for similar choices in the juice aisle of the supermarket or health food store. Data show organic and natural juice revenue for 2012, a 13% increase over 2011.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $2.4 billion
Source: Clare O’Connor, “Hain Celestial is Juiced,” Forbes, August 12, 2013, pages 40-42.
Original source: Nutrition Business Journal
Posted on August 21, 2013

Organic Products

Currently there are more than 17,000 certified organic businesses in the United States. In 2011, sales of organic foods made up more than 4% of all food and beverage sales. In 2012, sales of organic products grew 10%. Growth in this industry is expected to continue due to increasing consumer demand.

Today’s market size is the dollar amount of organic product sales in United States in 2012.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $35 billion
Source: Mary Clare Jalonick, “Demand Aids Organic Industry’s Sway,” Lansing State Journal, May 19, 2013, page 6A.
Posted on May 22, 2013

Açaí Berries and Superfoods

The açaí berry is native to the Amazon rainforest and in particular to Brazil. It is a berry that has high quantities of phytochemicals, plant compounds that are believed to protect us from a variety of ills, from heart disease to cancer. Through heavy marketing of the berry as a sort of miracle cure, a market for this fruit was created and grew rapidly, reaching a high in 2009.

The açaí berry is what is often called a superfood, a category of foods that are nutrient dense, thus rich in vitamins, minerals and other nutrients while having few calories. So-called superfoods that are new to the U.S. market appear to follow a somewhat predictable cycle. They become the hyped new health food. Demand for them rises sharply and they ride this tide. Then they begin a decline as their high prices are balanced against the consumer’s experience with them and the promise of a new, heavily marketed superfood. Worth noting is the fact that blueberries are very nearly as rich in polyphenols as are açaí berries yet they are priced at a fraction of the price of açaí berries.

Today’s market size is an estimate of the total value of açaí-laced products sold in the United States in 2012.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $200 million
Source: Tom Philpott, “Farm to Fable,” Mother Jones, May/June 2013, page 68
Posted on April 23, 2013

Craft Beers

Beer consumption and median age of population

While the overall U.S. consumption of beer, measured in terms of per capita consumption, has been declining steadily since the 1980s, as can be seen in the graphic, the craft beer market has been doing quite well. Craft beers are those made by brewers whose annual production is less than 6 million barrels, who use traditional methods of brewing and are independently owned. The number of craft brewers in the United States has risen from 1,753 in 2010 to 2,403 in 2012 and craft brewers in 2012 accounted for 6.5% of the overall beer market by volume and 10.2% by value of sales.

The graph presents per capita beer consumption in the Untied States from 1966 through 2012 with a red line showing the median age of the U.S. population.

Today’s market size is based on sales of craft beer in the United States in 2012, by volume and value. In volume terms, the craft beer market grew by 15% between 2011 and 2012 and by value, it grew by 17%.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: 13.24 million barrels (410.44 million gallons) valued at $10.2 billion.
Source: “Craft Brewing Facts,” Brewers Association, March 18, 2013, available online here. The graphic comes from Patricia J. Bungert and Arsen J. Darnay, editors, Encyclopedia of Products & Industries — Manufacturing, Figure 19, page 96, Gale Cengage Learning, 2008, updated here with data cited above from the Brewers Association’s website.
Original source: Brewers Association and U.S. Census Bureau
Posted on April 10, 2013


By definition, champagne is a product of France. In order to be called champagne, a sparkling wine must be made with grapes from the Champagne region of France and must meet an additional set of requirements imposed by the Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne (CIVIC). The United Kingdom is the largest importer of champagne, followed by the United States and then Germany. U.S. imports of champagne started off the first decade of the new century averaging 18 million bottles annually, it peaked at 23.2 million bottles in 2006 and fell thereafter for three consecutive years. In 2010, champagne imports to the United States saw a small increase from prior year imports.

Today’s market size is the estimated total number of bottles of champagne exported by France in 2011.

Geographic reference: Worldwide
Year: 2011
Market size: 335 million bottles
Source: Tiffany Hsu, “Champagne Sales Surged in 2011, Booze Headed for 2012 Boost,” January 1, 2012, Los Angeles Times, available online here.
Original source: Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne and the Champagne Bureau
Posted on December 27, 2012