Canadian Icewine Exports

Canadian icewineThe Canadian winemaking industry goes back more than 200 years to the early 1800s when Johann Schiller began growing hybridized grapes and making his own wine in Ontario’s Niagara region. The first commercial winery opened in 1866 on Pelee Island. In 1890 there were 41 commercial wineries in Canada, most in Ontario. By 2011 there were 476. Four years later that number grew to 604. Domestic sales of Canadian wines in 2015-2016 were C$2.1 billion. Exports were valued at nearly C$74 million in 2015.

Icewine, a dessert wine that is made exclusively from grapes that are naturally frozen on the vine, began to be produced commercially in Canada in 1978. In 1991 Inniskillin Winery’s 1989 Vidal Icewine won the Grand Prix d’Honneur at Bordeaux’s VinExpo, bringing international recognition to Canada’s icewine industry. Currently, Canada is the largest consistent producer of icewine in the world.

Today’s market size shows the value and volume of Canadian icewine exports in 2011 and 2015. More than a third of icewine exports went to China in 2015, followed by the United States (23.5%), South Korea (13.2%), the United Kingdom (6.5%), and Hong Kong (6.1%). In all in 2015 Canada exported icewine to 31 countries around the world. Although the value and volume of icewine exports have increased during the 2011 to 2015 time period, as a percentage of total wine exports, the value and volume have decreased. In 2011, icewine was 36.2% of total wine export value; in 2015, 25.1%. In 2011, icewine made up 0.84% of total wine exports by volume. In 2015, that dropped to 0.32%.

Geographic reference: Canada
Year: 2011 and 2015
Market size: C$13,354,174 and C$18,623,057 respectively
Market size: 181,093 liters and 234,604 liters respectively
Sources: “Canadian Icewine Exports 2011-2015,” Canadian Vintners Association, August 2016 available online here; “Canadian Icewine Exports – Top 10 Markets in 2015,” Canadian Vintners Association, August 2016 available online here; “Canadian Wine Exports 2011-2015,” Canadian Vintners Association, August 2016 available online here; Statistics Canada, “Table 183-0024 – Sales of Alcoholic Beverages of Liquor Authorities and Other Retail Outlets, by Value, Volume, and Beverage Type, Annual,” CANSIM, May 1, 2017 available online here; “Key Dates & Statistics,” Robert A Bell’s Wines of Canada available online here; “Canadian Icewine,” Canadian Vintners Association, 2016 availalble online here; “The Beginning of Wine Making in Canada,” Robert A Bell’s Wines of Canada, 2014 available online here; “History of Icewines,” Robert A Bell’s Wines of Canada, 2012 available online here; “Industry Statistics,” Canadian Vintners Association available online here; “Canadian Wine and Grape Industry Economic Impact 2015 Fact Sheet,” Canadian Vintners Association, March 2017 available online here.
Image source: Hatfield, Craig, “Icewine From The Niagara Region,” Wikimedia Commons, February 2, 2008 available online here. Use of image does not constitute endorsement of brand shown.

Craft Beer in Michigan

From 2012 to 2016, the number of craft breweries in the United States more than doubled from 2,420 to 5,234. In 2016, sales of craft beer made up 22%—$23.5 billion—of the overall beer market.

Today’s market size shows the number of craft breweries in Michigan and the number of gallons of beer they produced in 2016.

Geographic reference: Michigan
Year: 2016
Market size: 205 craft breweries produced 769,897 gallons of craft beer
Sources: Dillon Davis, “Standing Tall,” Lansing State Journal, April 23, 2017, page 3P; “Number of Breweries,” 2017 available online here.
Original source: Brewers Association
Image source: Tookapic, “Beer-glass-drink-beverage-alcohol-932320,” Pixabay, September 28, 2015 available online here.

Wineries in Michigan

Michigan ranks fifth in the United States in wine production. Most wine grapes are grown in Van Buren, Berrien, Leelanau, and Grand Traverse counties, all within 25 miles of the Lake Michigan coast. The top 3 wines produced are Riesling, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay. Because several other types of fruit are grown in the state, many wineries make wine from fruit other than grapes, such as with cherries or apples.

Geographic reference: Michigan
Year: 2017
Market size: 127 wineries producing 2.4 million gallons of wine annually
Source: Bob Gross, “Wine and Spirits Industries Booming,” Lansing State Journal, April 23, 2017, page 7P.
Original source: Michigan Grape and Wine Industry Council


Sake is an alcoholic beverage, made with rice, that originated in Japan. It is often referred to as rice wine but is actually closer to a beer than a wine based on the way that it is brewed. In the production of wine, the natural sugars in the fruits from which it is made are fermented. In making sake, the sugars that are fermented to produce the alcohol must first be converted from the starches in rice. It is a process very similar to the one used to brew beer.

Today’s market size is the value of Japanese sake exports to the world in 2002, 2012 and the industry’s declared goal for exports by 2020. In 2012, one-third of the sake exported from Japan was imported by the United States.

Geographic reference: Japan
Year: 2002, 2012, and a forecast for 2020
Market size: ¥7.5 billion, ¥8.9 billion and ¥60 billion respectively. In dollar terms, based on average exchange rates each year and using 2013’s exchange rate for the 2020 forecast, those values are $60 million, $112 million, and $616 million.
Source: Eric Peanner and Zhiyi Yang, “In Sake, Japan Sees A Potential Stimulus,” The New York Times, February 22, 2014, pages B1-B2. The average exchange rate data used to convert the Yen to Dollars was obtained at this OzForx Group Limited website.
Original source: National Tax Agency of Japan
Posted on March 11, 2014


The last decade has been one of unexpected growth for whiskey distillers in the United States and in particular for those producing bourbon. Bourbon is made in the United States only—in the same way that Scotch Whiskey must be made in Scotland—and is a type of whiskey made from a grain mash consisting of at least 51% corn mash. The distinctions that define types of whiskey are the primary grain used in the mash with which the whiskey is distilled, the length of time it is aged in a barrel, and the place in which it is made.

Bourbon whiskey was a very fashionable and popular drink in the United States after prohibition and through the 1950s. The drink went out of fashion in the 1960s and spent the next several decades in decline. But that has all changed since the turn of the century. Bourbon is once again a fashionable drink, demand for which is rising so quickly that distillers are having a hard time keeping pace. After all, a high-quality bourbon must spend years in a barrel to age making quick adjustments to inventory problematic.

Today’s market size is the value of bourbon exports from the United States in 2002 and 2013.

Geographic reference: U.S. exports
Year: 2002 and 2013
Market size: $376 million and $1 billion respectively
Source: Clay Risen, “The Billion-Dollar Bourbon Boom — How Did American Bourbon Get So Damn Hot?” Fortune, February 24, 2014, pages 56-65.
Original source: Distilled Spirits Council of the United States
Posted on March 4, 2014


Today’s market size is the total production of oranges worldwide in 2013, broken out into those harvested for consumption as fresh fruit and those harvested for processing. In the United States, production was down in 2013 due in part to Citrus Greening disease which has been killing trees in the nations largest orange producing state, Florida. Over the last six years, 2008–2013, U.S. orange production accounted for an average of 15% of world production. In 2013 that figure fell to 13%.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2013
Market size: 51.8 million metric tons, 59% harvested for fresh consumption and 41% for processing
Source: “Oranges, Fresh: Production, Supply and Distribution in Selected Countries,” Production, Supply and Distribution Online, December 24, 2013, USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, available online here. The USDA reports on the production and supply of many agricultural products through its Foreign Agricultural Service, the main web site for which is here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)
Posted on February 7, 2014

Craft Cider


Sales in the United States of hard cider tripled between 2007 and 2012. Hard cider is a fermented alcoholic beverage made with fruit juice, usually apple but some ciders are made with other fruit juices, primarily peach and pear. When the term cider is used alone, it may refer to hard cider or to a nonalcoholic apple cider.

Although the hard cider market is still a small fraction of the $10.2 billion craft beer market (2012) it is growing quickly. Cider sales in multi-outlets and convenience stores during the year ended March 24, 2013, totaled $122.5 million for the top 20 cider brands. That’s an increase of 97 percent compared to a year earlier. Capitalizing on the craft cider trend, small and large craft beer manufacturers are creating their own hard cider blends to entice drinkers with new taste offerings. To spark interest in the mainstream beer drinker MillerCoors offers several hybrid beers.

Today’s market size is total sales of hard cider in the United States in 2012.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $600 million
Source: Chris Furman, “Craft Cider Gaining Momentum,” Brewhound, June 3, 2013, available online here. The photo is from a web site offering images free of copyright, here.
Posted on January 24, 2014


Cranberries, a native fruit of North America, are consumed most frequently in the form of juice. However, during the celebration of Thanksgiving in the United States, cranberries in a more solid form have an important place on the menu. Wisconsin is the cranberry-producing center of the United States. It’s crop, in 2012, accounted for more than half of all fresh cranberries sold in the country.

Today’s market size in the estimated value of the 2012 cranberry harvest in the United States.

We wish you much to be thankful for on this day before Thanksgiving, 2013.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $386 million (slightly more than 8 million barrels of cranberries)
Source: Malinda Geisler and Diane Huntrods, “Cranberries Profile,” Agricultural Marketing Resource Center (AgMRC), Iowa State University, available online here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture
Posted on November 27, 2013

Orange Juice

Faced with a greater variety of beverage choices, including exotic juices and energy drinks, and higher prices for orange juice due to the spread of citrus greening disease, consumers are increasingly choosing those alternatives over the breakfast staple, orange juice. Total U.S. retail unit sales in the 2012-2013 season reached its lowest level since the 1998-1999 season.

Data show the total U.S. retail sales of orange juice by volume in the 2012-2013 season.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012-2013
Market size: 563.2 million gallons
Source: Alexandra Wexler, “The Slow Death of a Former Breakfast Table Star,” The Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2013, available online here.
Original source: Nielsen
Posted on October 29, 2013

Organic and Natural Juices

Just as more and more people are choosing to buy organic produce, so too are they looking for similar choices in the juice aisle of the supermarket or health food store. Data show organic and natural juice revenue for 2012, a 13% increase over 2011.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $2.4 billion
Source: Clare O’Connor, “Hain Celestial is Juiced,” Forbes, August 12, 2013, pages 40-42.
Original source: Nutrition Business Journal
Posted on August 21, 2013

Organic Products

Currently there are more than 17,000 certified organic businesses in the United States. In 2011, sales of organic foods made up more than 4% of all food and beverage sales. In 2012, sales of organic products grew 10%. Growth in this industry is expected to continue due to increasing consumer demand.

Today’s market size is the dollar amount of organic product sales in United States in 2012.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $35 billion
Source: Mary Clare Jalonick, “Demand Aids Organic Industry’s Sway,” Lansing State Journal, May 19, 2013, page 6A.
Posted on May 22, 2013

Açaí Berries and Superfoods

The açaí berry is native to the Amazon rainforest and in particular to Brazil. It is a berry that has high quantities of phytochemicals, plant compounds that are believed to protect us from a variety of ills, from heart disease to cancer. Through heavy marketing of the berry as a sort of miracle cure, a market for this fruit was created and grew rapidly, reaching a high in 2009.

The açaí berry is what is often called a superfood, a category of foods that are nutrient dense, thus rich in vitamins, minerals and other nutrients while having few calories. So-called superfoods that are new to the U.S. market appear to follow a somewhat predictable cycle. They become the hyped new health food. Demand for them rises sharply and they ride this tide. Then they begin a decline as their high prices are balanced against the consumer’s experience with them and the promise of a new, heavily marketed superfood. Worth noting is the fact that blueberries are very nearly as rich in polyphenols as are açaí berries yet they are priced at a fraction of the price of açaí berries.

Today’s market size is an estimate of the total value of açaí-laced products sold in the United States in 2012.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: $200 million
Source: Tom Philpott, “Farm to Fable,” Mother Jones, May/June 2013, page 68
Posted on April 23, 2013

Craft Beers

Beer consumption and median age of population

While the overall U.S. consumption of beer, measured in terms of per capita consumption, has been declining steadily since the 1980s, as can be seen in the graphic, the craft beer market has been doing quite well. Craft beers are those made by brewers whose annual production is less than 6 million barrels, who use traditional methods of brewing and are independently owned. The number of craft brewers in the United States has risen from 1,753 in 2010 to 2,403 in 2012 and craft brewers in 2012 accounted for 6.5% of the overall beer market by volume and 10.2% by value of sales.

The graph presents per capita beer consumption in the Untied States from 1966 through 2012 with a red line showing the median age of the U.S. population.

Today’s market size is based on sales of craft beer in the United States in 2012, by volume and value. In volume terms, the craft beer market grew by 15% between 2011 and 2012 and by value, it grew by 17%.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2012
Market size: 13.24 million barrels (410.44 million gallons) valued at $10.2 billion.
Source: “Craft Brewing Facts,” Brewers Association, March 18, 2013, available online here. The graphic comes from Patricia J. Bungert and Arsen J. Darnay, editors, Encyclopedia of Products & Industries — Manufacturing, Figure 19, page 96, Gale Cengage Learning, 2008, updated here with data cited above from the Brewers Association’s website.
Original source: Brewers Association and U.S. Census Bureau
Posted on April 10, 2013


By definition, champagne is a product of France. In order to be called champagne, a sparkling wine must be made with grapes from the Champagne region of France and must meet an additional set of requirements imposed by the Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne (CIVIC). The United Kingdom is the largest importer of champagne, followed by the United States and then Germany. U.S. imports of champagne started off the first decade of the new century averaging 18 million bottles annually, it peaked at 23.2 million bottles in 2006 and fell thereafter for three consecutive years. In 2010, champagne imports to the United States saw a small increase from prior year imports.

Today’s market size is the estimated total number of bottles of champagne exported by France in 2011.

Geographic reference: Worldwide
Year: 2011
Market size: 335 million bottles
Source: Tiffany Hsu, “Champagne Sales Surged in 2011, Booze Headed for 2012 Boost,” January 1, 2012, Los Angeles Times, available online here.
Original source: Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne and the Champagne Bureau
Posted on December 27, 2012


Today we look at cranberries, one of the ingredients of a traditional Thanksgiving Day meal in the United States. The market we present here is the size, measured in barrels, of U.S. cranberry production annually over four decades.

We hope that as the Thanksgiving Holiday weekend proceeds in the United States, that all of our visitors have many reasons to give thanks this year.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
Market size: 2.70, 3.44, 5.84, and 6.81 million barrels respectively
Source: “Cranberries—2012 Cranberry Production Down Slightly,” August 14, 2012, and earlier reports on cranberry production, all produced and made available by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Services. The Annual reports on cranberry production are listed on the USDA’s website here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture
Posted on November 21, 2012

Functional Foods Market

At the most elemental level, we eat to supply our bodies with the nutrients necessary to maintain life. So by definition, food has a rather important function. However, the term functional food refers to processed foods and drinks that are marketed as having “health-promoting or wellness-maintaining properties”. The labels on such foods often include messages such as heart healthy, helps reduce cholesterol, clinically shown to improve kids attentiveness, helps support your immune system or your digestive system or your nervous system, etc.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2009
Market size: $37.3 billion
Source: Singer, Natasha, “Food With Benefits, or So They Say,” The New York Times, May 15, 2011, page B1, available online here.
Original source: Nutritional Business Journal


Today’s market size offers a measure of the world’s coffee production. The U.S. Department of Agriculture tracks many, many agricultural products, geographically, by output, by shipment and even by consumption. Another example of how the Federal government’s data collection agencies provide us with an extremely valuable service.

Happy tax day!

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2000-2001 and 2010-2011
Market size: 117,521 and 139,084 thousand 60-kilogram bags respectively
Source: “Table 01 – Coffee World Production, Supply and Distribution,” Coffee: World
Markets and Trade,
December 2010, page 4, available online here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service


The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) produces annual reports on individual commodities. One of the commodities they track is honey. The market sizes presented today are various years worth of honey production in the United States by producers that have at least 5 colonies of bees.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 1990, 1993, 2003 and 2009, 2010
Market size: 196, 230, 181, 146 and 176 million pounds respectively
Source: “Honey,” February 2011, February 27, 2004, February 18, 1994, and Feburary 13, 1991. These annual reports are available online here.
Original source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, NASS


An often heard or read phrase related to agricultural production goes as follows: You can thank pollinators for one out of three bites of food you eat. Of course, that assumes you have a nutritionally balanced diet. But the point is clear. One-third of crops used to produce food for human consumption come from plants that depend on pollination to reproduce. In the United States it is estimated that the value annually of crops that are pollinated by insects is $40 billion and this figure does not include the value of non-food crops that also depend upon pollinators, like cotton, for example. The market size figure presented below is an estimated value to the world every year of pollination done by insects and animals.

For anyone not familiar with pollination, it is the process by which pollen is moved from one place on a flowering plant to another. Pollen grains contain the male contribution to the fertilization process and are moved through pollination to the female parts of the plant so that offspring may be produced. Without pollination, a flowering plant will not bear fruit or seeds. Insects and some animals serve as transporters in this process, as does the wind for some plants.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2010
Market size: $200 billion
Source: “Gold Dusters,” National Geographic, March 2011, page 121.
Original source: United Nations, Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO). Another source of interesting information about pollination and crops is available here from the National Biological Information Infrastructure, a program administered by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Coffee in Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is experiencing a decline in its coffee production. Over the period from 2002 to 2009 the island saw a decline of more than half in the number of farms growing coffee beans, from 9,000 in 2002 to 4,000 on 2009. According to the source article, the reasons for this decline are varied and include flooding from recent tropical storms as well as difficulty finding enough workers to pick the coffee beans at harvest time. Despite high unemployment rates an estimated $25 million worth of coffee was left unpicked in the 2009-2010 season, according to the Puerto Rico Coffee Buyers & Growers Association.

Geographic reference: Puerto Rico
Year: 2006 and 2010
Market size: 178,000 pounds and 80,000 pounds respectively. The harvest in 2010 had an estimated value of $23 million.
Source: “Sharp Drop in Coffee Production on Puerto Rico Worries Growers,” The Avis, February 19, 2011, St. Croix, Virgin Islands.
Original source: Puerto Rico Coffee Buyers & Growers Association.