Firewall as a Service

cloud computing security firewallA firewall prevents unauthorized access to a network based on a defined set of security rules. For more than two decades firewalls have been used to provide network security. Firewalls can be hardware-based or software-based or both.

Firewall as a Service (FWaaS) is a cloud-based service in which an organization’s firewall is centralized to monitor traffic coming from multiple locations within the organization, from mobile users and the internet. Without using FWaaS, employees in a company’s IT department may spend time maintaining multiple firewalls in multiple locations. Besides responding to cyber threats, this includes updating hardware and software to thwart new threats or to comply with new government regulations and verifying that security rules are consistent throughout the network. FWaaS creates a centralized point of access for network traffic with the ability to automatically scale the service depending upon need, adding more network locations or adding bandwidth capabilities. The provider of these services is responsible for maintaining the firewall infrastructure. FWaaS providers have dedicated security teams that monitor systems, provide necessary updates and respond to network security threats.

Today’s market size shows the amount spent globally on FWaaS in 2017 and 2022. Data for 2022 are projected. The market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 24.9% from 2017 to 2022. An increasing need for more sophisticated network security, the ability to rapidly upgrade firewall protocols, and reduced operating costs are some reasons the demand for FWaaS is expected to increase over the next 5 years. Major vendors of FWaaS are Barracuda Networks, Cato Networks, Check Point Software Technologies, Cisco Systems, Forcepoint, Fortinet, Juniper Networks, Palo Alto Networks, WatchGuard, and Zscaler.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2017 and 2022
Market size: $0.56 billion and $1.70 billion respectively
Sources: “Firewall as a Service Market Worth 1.70 Billion USD by 2022,” Cision PR Newswire, March 2, 2018 available online here; Dave Greenfield, “What is Firewall as a Service and Why Do You Need It?” Cato Networks, April 16, 2018 available online here; Alan Zeichick, “Understanding Cloud-Based Firewalls,” enterprise.nxt, February 20, 2017 available online here; “What is a Firewall?” Cisco, available online here.
Original source: MarketsandMarkets
Image source: wynpnt, “cloud-computing-network-internet-2001090,” Pixabay, January 23, 2017 available online here.

Web Application Firewalls

CybersecurityA web application is a computer program that uses an internet browser as a client interface. Some examples of web applications are email clients such as Gmail; productivity applications such as G Suite and Microsoft 365, which include word processors and spreadsheets; and multi-player online gaming applications. Online banking and investing websites that allow users to access their accounts and perform transactions are also examples of web applications. As these applications have gotten more complex and the storage of sensitive data has gotten more prevalent, the need for sophisticated security has increased.

One type of security measure is a firewall. A firewall prevents unauthorized access to a network based on a defined set of security rules. For more than two decades firewalls have been used to provide network security. Some types of firewalls include packet-filtering, state-inspection, unified threat management, and next-generation. Early firewalls examined the packets that came through the network, but they couldn’t distinguish between valid application layer protocol requests, data, and malicious code disguised as valid traffic or data. The need for application layer protection became necessary as attacks against web servers became more frequent. Benefits of application layer firewall protection include being able to block specific content or websites, control the execution of files and control the handling of data by specific applications.

Today’s market size shows the amount spent on web application firewalls globally in 2017 and projected for 2023. Governmental organizations and e-commerce companies are the top two targets of cyber attacks. The organizations themselves are not the only ones vulnerable to attack. The malware that infects the web application can infect the users’ computers also.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2017 and 2023
Market size: $2.37 billion and $5.92 billion respectively
Sources: “Global Web Application Firewall Market 2018-2023 – Segmented by Component, Organization Size, Industry Vertical, and Region –,” Business Wire Press Release, May 14, 2018 available online here; Margaret Rouse, Casey Clark and Michael Cobb, “Firewall,” TechTarget, February 2018 available online here; “What is a Firewall?” available online here; Daniel Nations, “What Exactly Is a Web Application?” Lifewire, February 22, 2018, updated by Elise Moreau available online here.
Image source: JanBaby, “security-secure-locked-technology-2168233,” Pixabay, March 23, 2017 available online here.

Bitcoin Ransomware Payments

RansomwareAccording to the 2018 Data Breach Investigations Report, in 2017 there were 53,308 cybersecurity incidents worldwide with more than 2,200 data breaches. As a percentage of all malware incidents, ransomware incidents have risen dramatically since 2013. More than 40% of malware incidents involved ransomware in 2017. Ransomware is a type of malicious software that prevents a user from accessing their computer or mobile device, either by disabling the operating system or encrypting files, until a ransom is paid. The ransom usually totals a few hundred dollars per infected computer. Ransomware can infect servers as well as individual devices. People clicking on an infected email attachment, visiting infected websites or clicking on ads that contain malware are some ways that computers can get infected. Ransomware targets vulnerabilities in software. Updates to software attempt to remove these vulnerabilities so that cybercriminals can’t exploit them.

According to the FBI, ransomware infects more than 100,000 computers worldwide per day and payments to cybercriminals total nearly $1 billion per year. However, the cost of a ransomware attack goes beyond the payment to the attacker. Even after paying the ransom about 20% of companies do not get their data back. The costs associated with business downtime, recovery of files and increased spending on cybersecurity are many times greater. According to Kaspersky Lab, in 2016 the average ransom demand was $300, but the average cost to a small to medium-sized company due to a ransomware attack was $99,000. Globally, the cost of cybercrime is expected to reach $6 trillion by 2021, up from $3 trillion in 2015. Today’s market size shows the minimum amount of ransom paid to cybercriminals in Bitcoin from 2013 to mid-2017 based on analysis of 35 ransomware families. As of May 2018, there were more than 500 known families of ransomware that demand Bitcoin as payment.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2013 to mid-2017
Market size: $12.8 million
Sources: Alex Lielacher, “Size of Bitcoin Ransomware Market ‘Overhyped’ in the Media,” Brave NewCoin, April 23, 2018 available online here; “Deputy Attorney General Rod J. Rosenstein Delivers Remarks at the Cambridge Cyber Summit,” The United States Department of Justice, October 4, 2017, updated October 6, 2017 available online here; Masara Paquet-Clouston, et. al., Ransomware Payments in the Bitcoin Ecosystem, May 2018 available online here; 2018 Data Breach Investigations Report, 11th Edition, Verizon, April 2018 available online here; “The Cost of Cryptomalware: SMBs at Gunpoint,” Kaspersky Lab Daily, September 7, 2016 avalable online here; Tamara Chuang, “Inside the Profitable Underworld of Ransomware,” Government Technology, March 5, 2018 available online here.
Image source: TheDigitalArtist, “ransomware-cyber-crime-malware-2320941,” Pixabay, May 18, 2017 available online here.

Database Security

database securityGlobally the number of cyber security incidents increased 1,637% from 3.4 million incidents in 2009 to more than 59 million incidents in 2015. In the United States the number of data breaches alone increased from 446 in 2007 to 1,579 in 2017. According to Steve Langan, chief executive at Hiscox Insurance, cybercrime cost the global economy more than $450 billion dollars in 2016.

As a result of the growing threats from viruses, worms, Denial of Service attacks and other malware the need for increasingly sophisticated cyber security solutions grows year by year. In 2017 the business sector was the most vulnerable to data breaches in the United States followed by the medical/healthcare sector, accounting for 55% and 23.7% of all data breaches respectively.

Today’s market size shows the amount industries around the world spent on database security in 2017 and the amount they are projected to spend in 2022. The market is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 18.9% due to the increase in the amount of data that needs protecting, the increase in malware threats, and the increase in regulations protecting the privacy and security of customers’ health and financial data.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2017 and 2022
Market size: $2.95 billion and $7.01 billion respectively
Sources: “Database Security Market by Software, Service, Business Function, Deployment, Organization Size, and Vertical Global Forecast to 2022 – Research and Markets,” Business Wire Press Release, January 2, 2018 available online here; “Global Number of Cyber Security Incidents From 2009 to 2015 (in Millions),” Statista, October 2015 available online here; Luke Graham, “Cybercrime Costs the Global Economy $450 Billion: CEO,” CNBC, February 7, 2017 available online here; “Data Breaches: The Insanity Continues,” Identity Theft Resource Center, 2015 available online here; “2017 Annual Data Breach Year-End Review: Executive Summary,” Identity Theft Resource Center, 2017 available online here.
Image source: Geralt, “Binary-hands-keyboard-tap-enter-2372131,” Pixabay, June 2017 available online here.

Collaborative Robots

Global Sales of Collaborative RobotsCollaborative robots, or co-bots, are robots that work alongside human workers. Many workers are wary of the increased use of robots in general, fearing the loss of their jobs. M.I.T. and Boston University estimated that up to six people lose their jobs for each robot per 1,000 workers a company adds. Employers, however, cite increased productivity, cost savings, and healthier work environments when robots are used in the workplace. Robots can work in hazardous jobs or do repetitive tasks thereby reducing worker injuries.

Today’s market size shows the total global sales of collaborative robots in 2015, 2020, and 2025. Figures for 2020 and 2025 are projections. According to the Robotic Industries Association, the United States is third behind Japan and China in the total number of industrial robots in use—250,000 in 2017. According to the Brookings Institution, metro Detroit has more than 15,000 industrial robots in place, almost five times the number of any other major city in the U.S.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2015, 2020 and 2025
Market size: $120 million, $3.1 billion (projected) and $12 billion (projected).
Source: Dolan, Matthew, “Rise of the Robots,” Lansing State Journal, October 30, 2017, page 8A.
Original source: Barclays Equity Research analysts

International Data Flow

The World Wide Web. A decentralized network of data stored on servers all around the world. But many countries—China, Russia, Germany, and Belgium, to name a few—are enacting laws requiring multinational companies to store and process country-specific data on local servers. According to the source, relaxing such restrictions has become a priority of President Donald Trump’s administration as they negotiate trade agreements, including the upcoming renegotiation of NAFTA.

Proponents of these laws say that having their users’ data stored locally aids in cyber security. Opponents say that storing data on local servers is more expensive, especially for small to medium sized companies. High tech companies worry about having their source codes stolen. Some companies worry that governments or political groups will use the data stored on these servers for illegitimate reasons. And many argue that limiting data flow also limits job growth and innovation. According to Nigel Cory, a trade policy analyst at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, “data needs to flow to create value.”

Today’s market size is the estimated value of data flowing through international borders in 2014, according to a report by the McKinsey Global Institute.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2014
Market size: $2.8 trillion
Sources: Yu, Roger, “More Firms Push Back on Foreign Data Rule,” USA TODAY for the Lansing State Journal, August 13, 2017, page 4B
Original source: Manyika, James, et. al., Digital Globalization: The New Era of Global Flows, McKinsey Global Insitute, February 2016 available online here.
Image source: Geralt, “Binary-hands-keyboard-tap-enter-2372131,” Pixabay, June 2017 available online here.

Automotive Semiconductors

Semiconductors—the essential foundation upon which modern electronics rest—are found in all electronic devices as well as many products that one would not initially think of as electronic, such as greeting cards with embedded audio chips in them to produce music upon opening. The use of semiconductors in the automotive industry has made the modern car/truck one of the most advanced electronic devices most people own, often without even knowing it.

Semiconductors are, in the simplest terms, elements like germanium and silicon that conduct electricity at only moderate rates, thus they are “semi” conductors. These elements are used to make the semiconductor chips that are embedded in electronic devices to allow the use of electrical currents as a signal. All cybernetics rely on this type of signaling.

Today’s market size is the estimated value of the automotive semiconductor market, worldwide, in 2012 (when it represented 8.1% of the total world semiconductor market) and a projection of the market’s value in 2020.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2012 and a projection for 2020
Market size: $23.4 billion and $33.5 billion respectively
Sources: (1) Gary S. Vasilash, “The Supercomputer in Your Garage,” Car and Driver, December 2013, page 34. (2) Monique D. Magee, editor, “Semiconductors,” Market Share Reporter: Trends Over Time, GALE Cengage Learning, 2012, page 553.
Original source: Strategy Analytics
Posted on November 15, 2013


Over the last decade bioinformatics has been characterized by the mapping of many genomes. This has fueled explosive growth in the field generally, growth which is anticipated to continue into the future.

Bioinformatics, in the most basic sense, is the application of information technology to the life sciences to increase the understanding of biological and chemical processes. It is the study of the methods for storing, retrieving and analyzing biological data, a wealth of which is growing rapidly and thus feeding demand for more bioinformatics. Fields that benefit from the output of bioinformatics are many, including especially agricultural biotechnology, pharmaceutical research and development, and medical and clinical diagnostics.

Today’s market size is the estimated value of this hybrid industry in 2012 and a projected value for 2018.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2012 and 2018
Market size: $2.3 billion and $9.1 billion respectively
Source: “Global Bioinformatics Market is Expected to Reach USD 9.1 Billion in 2018: Transparency Market Research,” The Herald, November 28, 2012, a link to which is here.
Original source: Transparency Market Research, whose study on this industry may be purchased on their website here.
Posted on November 28, 2012

Home Wireless Routers

Many people who own tablet computers, laptops, and e-readers own wireless routers. Wireless routers allow them to connect to the Internet through these devices from anywhere in their homes. Data show sales of home wireless routers in 2005 and 2011.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2005 and 2011
Market Size: $700 million and $1.3 billion respectively
Source: Tamara Chuang, “When the Home’s Most Important Internet Device Fails,” The Street, September 17, 2012, available online here.
Original Source: Dell’Oro Group
Posted on September 26, 2012

Data Loss

That sinking feeling… we have all probably been there, face to face with a computer we count on that has begun to act up. The loss of data resulting from computer hardware failure, software corruption or even human error, is painful and costly. Measuring the loss is a difficult task but one that was undertaken by Dr. David M. Smith and reported on in the article from which we source today’s market size post. A full citation is below.

Specifically, the market size presented here is the estimated annual loss to businesses in the United States due to data losses on PCs and laptops. It dates back to 2003 but it provides us with a scope for the problem and a scope that we know has only grown. For further details, check the source article which defines things clearly.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2003
Market size: $18.2 billion
Source: David M. Smith, “The Cost of Lost Data,” Graziadio Business Review, 2003, available online here.
Original source: Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University
Posted on December 1, 2011

Computers in the U.S.

The steady rise in demand for computers and electronic computing devices in the United States appears, when charted, as a line moving in exactly the opposite direction as the domestic production and shipments of these same products. This is an industry (NAICS 334111) that highlights a trend towards increasing consumption of a product and declining production of the same which feeds the U.S. trade imbalance. But that leads us to complex questions we don’t really want to address here. Here, we present market sizes and today’s is based on the value of Electronic Computer Manufacturing in the United States in 2000 and 2010 as well as the value of net imports of the same products in 2000 and the forecasted value for 2010.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2000 and 2010
Market size: U.S. manufacturing $69.3 and $27.9 billion
Market size: Net imports $89.4 and $199.3 billion
Source: Computer value of shipments from Annual Survey of Manufactures 1997, and the 2002 Economic Census. Net imports of Electric and Electronic Equipment from Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000. Net imports of Computers and Electronic Products from Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012.
Posted on November 29, 2011

Compact Discs

US Production of CDsCompact discs, or CDs, appeared on the recording media scene and rapidly became the standard, demand for them growing in leaps and bounds. But their position as market leader was a passing thing. As digital recording media they are still used but in ever smaller numbers, as the graphic shows. Part of the decline in production is the result of production going overseas. But a shift in how we record and store digital information is the primary cause for the decline of CDs.

Today’s market size is the value of U.S. manufacturer shipments of CDs in 2009. These values refer to blank CDs, to the storage media and not products later sold and distributed on that compact disc media.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2009
Market size: $4.27 billion
Source: “Table 1139. Recording Media—Manufacturers Shipments and Value: 2000 to 2009,” Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011, January 20, 2011, page 716, available online here.
Original source: U.S. Census Bureau

The Public Cloud

Cloud computing is, in the simplest terms, the use of a remote location, accessible through the Internet, to store the data and applications used on a computer. We discuss this market in more detail in a post from May 3rd. Today’s market size is the size of the public cloud which is defined by the source as a service that is commercially offered to an “unrestricted marketplace of potential users.”

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2010 and forecast for 2015
Market size: $21.5 and $72.9 billion respectively
Source: Larry Dignan, “IDC: Public Cloud Market Will Hit $72.9 Billion in 2015,” ZDNet, June 20, 2011, available online here.
Original source: IDC

VOIP Providers

Today’s market size is based on the revenues earned by Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) providers in 2010. VOIP saw a tremendous 194 percent growth from 2000 to 2010. This industry is expected to grow another 17.4 percent from 2010 to 2016.

Geographic reference: United States
Year: 2010
Market size:: $12.5 billion
Source: Phil Izzo, “Top 10 Thriving Industries,” The Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2011, available online here
Original source: IBIS World

Cloud Computing

A term we hear quite often these days is cloud computing. The personal computer revolution was, in part, a step away from what were then the large, centralized mainframe computers on which data was stored and accessed through workstations. With a personal computer, one had everything on his or her own device. Now, in a way, there is a decoupling again of the data from the device. Cloud computing is, in the simplest terms, the use of a remote location, accessible through the Internet, to store the data and applications used on a computer—instead of a hard drive on the local computer or local network of computers.

This is a growing business but one whose boundaries are still being defined, which makes it difficult to measure. It is hard to keep the image of a person trying to measure a cloud from coming to mind. Consequently, one can find many different size estimates for cloud computing, the differences usually having to do with how the market is defined. What we present here is an estimate of the revenue from business cloud services—hardware and software infrastructure as well as the leasing of space—so it does not include, for example, the services provided to people wishing to back-up their family photo albums. Cloud computing services to the individual is another large business and one that may be included in other estimates of the nebulous cloud computing market.

Geographic reference: World
Year: 2010 and forecast for 2014
Market size: $22.2 billion and $55.5 billion respectively
Source: Lohr, Steve, “The Business Market Plays Cloud Computing Catch-Up,” The New York Times, April 15, 2011, page B16
Original source: IDC